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The 14th (ET's) Conversation Group

13. 5. 2012

We didn't discuss grammar last week, so there is no specific grammar or vocabulary topic to mention. For that reason I just post here a series of  pronunciation tests.

Do you make pronunciation mistakes? Test yourself: časté chyby ve výslovnosti 1 and  chyby ve výslovnosti 2.

For those who haven't  fallen forany of the previous tricky questions, there are more tests and I'd said this series is even tougher nut to crack - try Homografy - umíte je přečíst správně (A). If you happen to like it, you can challenge yourself for test B or C .... or read about Homographs first and do the tests later.

Vocabulary:
fall for sth. - naletět, nechat se nachytat
tough nut to crack - tvrdší oříšek (k rozlousknutí)
challenge yourself - odvnážně něco zkusit, vyzvat se

 

Further, there is a topic we went through briefly a few weeks ago.
Below, you'll find an excerpt (výňatek) from the Help For English article - Verb patterns. You can either read just this part or go to the link above.

Slovesné vazby s předložkami (následované gerundiem)

Tuto část můžeme nazvat taky předložkové vazby a je nedílnou součástí této gramatiky. Asi nebude novinkou, že po předložkách je vždy gerundium, ale problém je vybrat tu správnou předložku. Tady opět nezbývá nic jiného, než se tyto vazby naučit. Proto bez dlouhého vysvětlování následuje jejich seznam:

ABOUT
argue about: We argued about going on holidays.
be excited about: I am excited about going on holiday.
be thrilled about: I was thrilled about going camping.
be worried about: I am worried about taking the exam.

ABOUT / OF
complain about / of
: Susan complained of having a headache.
dream about / of: I dream about going to Hawaii.
speak about / of: He spoke about being concerned about his health.
talk about / of: Peter talked about being too busy.
think about / of: I was thinking about going on holiday.

FOR
apologize for
: David apologized for being late.
be responsible for: Who is responsible for taking care of invoices?
be thankful for: I was thankful for not having to go there.
blame (someone) for: Don't blame me for breaking it.
forgive (someone) for: Please forgive me for doing that.
have an excuse for: He always has an excuse for not coming.
have a reason for: Paul has a good reason for doing it.
thank (someone) for: Thank you for coming.

FROM
discourage
(someone) from: My girlfriend discourages me from racing.
keep (someone) from: She kept me from finishing the task.
prevent (someone) from: He prevented her from going there.
prohibit (someone) from: Paul prohibited us from smoking.
stop (someone) from: He stopped the child from running into the street.

IN
believe in
: I belive in doing good deeds.
be interested in: I am interested in skiing.
participate in: He participated in searching.
succeed in: She succeeded in setting up her own business.

OF
approve of
: My parents don't approve of me coming home so late.
be accused of: She was accused of stealing the present.
be capable of: He isn't capable of telling lies.
be guilty of: The jury found him guilty of stealing the bike.
be tired of: I am tired of having to work all day.
instead of: Instead of watching TV, I decided to go to the cinema.
take advantage of: You should take advantage of living here.
take care of: She took care of welcoming the guest.

ON
concentrate
on: I concentrated on doing it perfectly.
depend on: Our health depends on taking time to recharge our batteries.
insist on: I insist on knowing the whole truth!
plan on : I'm planning on attending the meeting.
rely on: I really relied on being accepted to that school.
 

TO
admit to
: She admitted to going there secretly.
be accustomed to : I am accustomed to working late hours.
be committed to: We are committed to providing the best medical care.
be opposed to: She was opposed to him doing such things.
be used to: I am used to getting up early.
confess to: She confessed to having an affair.
look forward to: I look forward to seeing you.
object to: I object to him saying such things.

Pozor!

Poslední část je pro studenty nejsložitější. Má to jeden velmi prostý důvod - předložka TO. Problém je v tom, že tady je TO předložka, a proto je po ní gerundium (to going). Jenže slovíčko TO může být taky částice infinitivu (to go).

A v tom je právě kámen úrazu. Studenti mají tak silně zakořeněnou právě infinitivní vazbu TO GO, že jim spojení TO GOING přijde jednoduše špatně nebo na něj ani nepomyslí.

Výsledkem je pak klasická chyba např. v dopisech:

I look forward to see you.

Sloveso těšit se (look forward) je vždy následováno předložkou TO.

těšit se NA něco = look forward TO something

I look forward to seeing you.

Několikrát se mi stalo, že mi studenti jednoduše nevěřili, protože již tolikrát viděli v dopisech např. I look forward to see you nebo I look forward to hear from you.

Pokud se vám to taky nezdá, tak přemýšlejte se mnou:

go swimming = jít plavat

I talked about going swimming. = Mluvil jsem o tom, že půjdu plavat.
Tady vás spojení ABOUT GOING asi nepřekvapí. ABOUT je přece předložka.

I am looking forward to going swimming. = Těším se, že půjdu plavat.
Tady je spojení TO GOING a i zde je předložka, tentokrát TO.

Stejné by to bylo napřiklad v další klasické chybě

I am used to get up early.

Jsem zvyklý na to = I am used to it.
TO je tady předložka, proto bude správně věta:

I am used to getting up early.